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Summary | Profile

Country profile: Czech Republic

Location: Central Europe, southeast of Germany
Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain: Bohemia in the west consists of rolling plains, hills, and plateaus surrounded by low mountains; Moravia in the east consists of very hilly country
Size: 78866 sq. km total (Land area: 77276 sq. km  Water area: 1590 sq.km)
Population: 10,220,911 (July 2008 est.)
Languages: Czech 94.9%, Slovak 2%, other 2.3%, unidentified 0.8% (2001 census)
Government: parliamentary democracy
Capital city: Prague
Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to bring it in line with Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) obligations and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Currency: Czech koruna (CZK)
Licensing:

Country profile

Poland, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic (commonly referred to as Slovakia), and Hungary are members of the Visegrad Group, created in February 1991 at the northern Hungarian town of Visegrad. After World War II until 1989-1990, these countries were Communist states, as well as members of the Warsaw Pact. On January 1, 1993, the Czech and Slovak Republics, previously Czechoslovakia, split to form two separate states. During the past decade, the Visegrad group has made the transition to democracy and to market-based economies. On May 1, 2004, the Visegrad countries became members of the European Union (EU).

In 1999, Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic became the first former Warsaw Pact countries to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) . Slovakia joined NATO in 2004. The Czech Republic became a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 1995, Hungary and Poland joined in 1996, and Slovakia in 2001. As members of the Visegrad Group, the four countries also belong to Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) . Slovenia , Romania , and Bulgaria are members too. The Visegrad countries are dependent on trade with the EU, in particular with Germany .

These four countries also continue to face economic restructuring challenges, including: modernizing large, and to a certain extent, antiquated agricultural sectors (especially in Poland); implementing more energy efficient processes for industry in order to decrease energy consumption; absorbing the costs from cleaning up heavily-polluting industries; and adapting industries and services to EU standards.

Energy production and consumption


Oil Gas
Production: 18,030 bbl/day (2005) 165 million cu m (2005 est.)
Consumption: 213,000 bbl/day (2005 est.) 9 million cu m (2005 est.)
Exports: 20,930 bbl/day (2004 est.) 81 million cu m (2005 est.)
Imports: 203,700 bbl/day (2004 est.) 8 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Reserves: 15 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.) 3 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Major fields:



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