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Summary | Profile

Country profile: Uzbekistan

Location: Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Climate: mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan
Size: 447400 sq. km total (Land area: 425400 sq. km  Water area: 22000
Population: 28,268,440 (July 2008 est.)
Languages: Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Government: republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Capital city: Tashkent (Toshkent)
Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Currency: soum (UZS)

Country profile

Central Asia is loosely defined as including the countries of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Afghanistan. The energy sectors of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are covered briefly in the Caspian Sea Region Brief, but this report discusses these two countries’ growing energy sectors in greater detail. Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan sit on large reserves of oil and natural gas, yet both countries face a myriad of challenges in bringing those reserves to world markets. Both countries are geographically far from the end-use markets they serve and lack sufficient pipeline infrastructure to export more hydrocarbons.

Also, other hydrocarbon-rich Central Asian and Caspian states with more favorable investment climates and greater access to markets pose competition for Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Both countries are eager to diversify export routes for their resources outside of the Russian-controlled pipelines, but each must seek to obtain capital, technical assistance, and political support for alternative pipelines. Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924.

During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include terrorism by Islamic militants, economic stagnation, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.

Energy production and consumption

Oil Gas
Production: 124,900 bbl/day (2005) 62 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Consumption: 155,000 bbl/day (2005) 48 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Exports: 6,941 bbl/day (2004) 12 billion cu m (2006 est.)
Imports: 11,230 bbl/day (2004)  
Reserves: 594 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.) 1 trillion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Major fields:

Uzbekistan - recent news

04 Mar 24
Azerbaijan: Condor Energies initiates gas field production enhancement operations in the Republic of Uzbekistan
Condor Energies, a Canadian based energy transition company, has initiated production enhancement operations of an integrated cluster of eight conventional natural gas-condensate fields in Uzbekistan effective March 1, 2024.
01 Feb 24
Uzbekistan: Condor signs a production enhancement contract for eight producing gas-condensate fields in the Republic of Uzbekistan
Condor Energies, a Canadian based energy transition company, has entered into a production enhancement contract with the Uzbekistan government to increase the production and overall recovery rates from an integrated cluster of eight conventional natural gas-condensate fields in the country.
24 May 23
Uzbekistan: Condor Signs HoA to enhance gas production at eight existing gas-condensate fields and two exploration blocks
Condor Energies has signed a HoA with the Ministry of Energy, the Ministry of Mining Industry and Geology and the national hydrocarbon energy company JSC Uzbekneftegaz for an investment project to assume full operations of eight existing gas-condensate fields along with two additional exploration blocks with the objective of increasing production rates and recoverable reserves.
23 May 23
Uzbekistan: Masdar signs agreement to develop over 2 GW of clean energy in Uzbekistan
Masdar has signed a joint development agreement with Uzbekistan’s Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of Investments, Industry and Trade to develop over 2 gigawatts of solar and wind projects and 500 megawatt-hours of battery energy storage at multiple sites across the Central Asian country.
30 Jun 22
Uzbekistan: Sanoat Energetika Guruhi and Kontiki-Exploration discover the largest oil and bitumen field in Uzbekistan
Sanoat Energetika Guruhi (SEG), together with Kontiki-Exploration, have discovered the Yangi Uzbekistan field, the largest ultra-viscous oil and bitumen field in Uzbekistan, in the Zerafshan depression.

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