Europe / Caspian / CIS

Kazakhstan flag
Summary | Profile

Country profile: Kazakhstan

Location: Central Asia, northwest of China; a small portion west of the Ural River in eastern-most Europe
Climate: continental, cold winters and hot summers, arid and semiarid
Terrain: extends from the Volga to the Altai Mountains and from the plains in western Siberia to oases and desert in Central Asia
Size: 2717300 sq. km total (Land area: 2669800 sq. km  Water area: 47500
Population: 15,340,533 (July 2008 est.)
Languages: Kazakh (Qazaq, state language) 64.4%, Russian (official, used in everyday business, designated the "language of interethnic communication") 95% (2001 est.)
Government: republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Capital city: Astana
Legal system: based on Islamic law and Roman law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Currency: tenge (KZT)

Country profile

Kazakhstan has the Caspian Sea region's largest recoverable crude oil reserves, and its production accounts for over half of the roughly 2.8 million barrels per day (bbl/d) currently being produced in the region (including regional oil producers Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan). Kazakhstan oil exports are the foundation of the country’s economy and have ensured that average real GDP growth has stayed above 9 percent for the last 6 years.

Real GDP growth during 2007 averaged 9.5 percent. Kazakhstan's growing petroleum industry accounts for roughly 30 percent of the country’s GDP and over half of its export revenues. In an effort to reduce Kazakhstan's exposure to price fluctuations for energy and commodities exports, the government created the National Oil Fund of Kazakhstan. Due to high oil prices the international reserves and assets in the oil fund have doubled in the last year to $20 billion in October 2007.

Native Kazakhs, a mix of Turkic and Mongol nomadic tribes who migrated into the region in the 13th century, were rarely united as a single nation. The area was conquered by Russia in the 18th century, and Kazakhstan became a Soviet Republic in 1936. During the 1950s and 1960s agricultural "Virgin Lands" program, Soviet citizens were encouraged to help cultivate Kazakhstan's northern pastures. This influx of immigrants (mostly Russians, but also some other deported nationalities) skewed the ethnic mixture and enabled non-Kazakhs to outnumber natives.

Independence in 1991 caused many of these newcomers to emigrate. Kazakhstan's economy is larger than those of all the other Central Asian states combined, largely due to the country's vast natural resources and a recent history of political stability. Current issues include: developing a cohesive national identity; expanding the development of the country's vast energy resources and exporting them to world markets; achieving a sustainable economic growth; diversifying the economy outside the oil, gas, and mining sectors; enhancing Kazakhstan's competitiveness; and strengthening relations with neighboring states and other foreign powers.


Energy production and consumption

Oil Gas
Production: 1 million bbl/day (2005 est.)  
Consumption: 234,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)  
Exports: 1 million bbl/day (2004 est.)  
Imports: 113,600 bbl/day (2004 est.)  
Reserves: 9 billion bbl/day (2006 est.)  
Major fields:

Kazakhstan - recent news

04 Dec 23
Kazakhstan: COP28: TotalEnergies signs the Agreement on Investment for its 1 GW Wind Power Project in Kazakhstan
On the occasion of the COP28 in Dubai, TotalEnergies has signed the Agreement on Investment (AoI) for TotalEnergies’ Mirny project. The largest wind energy project ever initiated in Kazakhstan, Mirny will supply more than 1 million people with low-carbon electricity and will avoid the emission of 3.5 million tons of CO2 annually in the country.
30 Nov 23
Kazakhstan: Zenith Energy incorporates new Kazakhstan subsidiary
Zenith Energy has announced that, as it is now in the advanced stage of finalising terms for the potential acquisition of oil production and development assets, it has incorporated a subsidiary in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
28 Sep 23
Kazakhstan: Plenitude inaugurates its first 50 MW photovoltaic plant in Kazakhstan
Plenitude (Eni) inaugurates today its first photovoltaic plant in the Republic of Kazakhstan, close to Shaulder village in the Turkistan Region. The facility, with a 50 MW installed capacity, further expands Plenitude's international portfolio and its presence, through its subsidiary Arm Wind, in the Kazakhstan's renewables sector.
19 Sep 23
Kazakhstan: Zenith Energy signs third MOU for oil production asset in Kazakhstan
Zenith Energy has signed a third MOU with a company incorporated in Kazakhstan to evaluate the potential acquisition of an oil production and development asset.
04 Sep 23
Kazakhstan: Zenith Energy signs MOU for oil production asset in Kazakhstan
Zenith Energy has signed an MOU with a company incorporated in Kazakhstan giving the Company a period of exclusivity for a duration of ninety days to evaluate a potential acquisition. The Seller holds a 100% interest in an oil production asset located in the Atyrau Region of Kazakhstan.

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