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Summary | Profile

Country profile: Germany

Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark
Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind
Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south
Size: 357021 sq. km total (Land area: 349223 sq. km  Water area: 7798
Population: 82,369,548 (July 2008 est.)
Languages: German
Government: federal republic
Capital city: Berlin
Legal system: civil law system with indigenous concepts; judicial review of legislative acts in the Federal Constitutional Court; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Currency: euro (EUR)

Country profile

Germany has one of the largest economies in the world, with a 2005 nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of $2.8 trillion. In recent years, economic growth has resumed, after GDP contracted by 0.2 percent in 2003. However, high unemployment and sluggish domestic demand continue to dampen economic growth. Owning to its large economy, Germany is one of the world’s largest energy consumers. In 2004, the country consumed 14.7 quadrillion British Thermal Units (Btu) of total energy, the fifth-largest amount in the world.

Besides coal, Germany does not possess any sizable hydrocarbon reserves, so the country must rely upon imports to meet the majority of its energy needs. The lack of domestic hydrocarbon resources has led Germany to become a world leader in the development of renewable energy technologies, with the country becoming the world’s largest producer of biodiesel and generator of electricity from wind.

As Europe's largest economy and second most populous nation, Germany is a key member of the continent's economic, political, and defense organizations. European power struggles immersed Germany in two devastating World Wars in the first half of the 20th century and left the country occupied by the victorious Allied powers of the US, UK, France, and the Soviet Union in 1945. With the advent of the Cold War, two German states were formed in 1949: the western Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern German Democratic Republic (GDR).

The democratic FRG embedded itself in key Western economic and security organizations, the EC, which became the EU, and NATO, while the Communist GDR was on the front line of the Soviet-led Warsaw Pact. The decline of the USSR and the end of the Cold War allowed for German unification in 1990. Since then, Germany has expended considerable funds to bring Eastern productivity and wages up to Western standards. In January 1999, Germany and 10 other EU countries introduced a common European exchange currency, the euro.


Energy production and consumption

Oil Gas
Production: 141,700 bbl/day (2005) 19 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Consumption: 2 million bbl/day (2005 est.) 96 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Exports: 518,700 bbl/day (2004) 9 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Imports: 2 million bbl/day (2004) 86 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Reserves: 367 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.) 246 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Major fields:

Germany - recent news

18 Jun 24
Vestas signs conditional agreement with Vattenfall and BASF for the Nordlicht projects in the German Northsea
Vestas has secured a conditional agreement to supply 112 V236-15.0 MW wind turbines for Vattenfall’s and BASF’s Nordlicht 1 and 2 offshore wind projects. The Nordlicht wind farm area is located 85 kilometres north off the island of Borkum in the German North Sea and consists of two separate locations: Nordlicht 1 and Nordlicht 2.
13 Jun 24
Germany: Qualitas Energy accelerates the energy transition with the acquisition of a 36 MW wind energy project in Brandenburg, Germany
Qualitas Energy, a global investment, management, and project development platform focused on renewable energy, energy transition, and sustainable infrastructure investment, has announced the successful acquisition of a repowering project with a development potential of 36 MW in Brandenburg, Germany.
10 Jun 24
Germany: Vestas secures a 72 MW order in Germany
Vestas has received a 72 MW order from Denker & Wulf for the wind energy project Holtsee in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. Turbine delivery is expected to begin in the fourth quarter of 2025 with commissioning scheduled for completion in the first half of 2026.
03 Jun 24
Germany: Beacon Energy announces Erfelden operational update
AIM-listed Beacon Energy, the full-cycle oil and gas company with a portfolio of onshore German assets through its wholly-owned subsidiary Rhein Petroleum, has provided an operational update in relation to the SCHB-2 sidetrack well in the Erfelden field.
28 May 24
Germany: Van Oord wins contract for Nordseecluster offshore wind project
Van Oord has been awarded the contract for the transport and installation of the monopile foundations for the Nordseecluster offshore wind project in Germany by RWE. The project award is a major milestone for Van Oord because it will be the first project for the brand-new offshore installation vessel Boreas, which is currently under construction.

Germany - more news

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